• For much of history, human development and economic growth have been paired with a commensurate increase in resource use and the production of waste. A sustainable future requires that this relationship be ‘decoupled’.
• The energy transition will not be precipitated by the world’s running out of fossil fuels; instead, the transition point is a moving target shaped by policy, technology, market pressures and social dynamics. For this reason, trends in shareholder activism, divestment and increasing policy momentum towards carbon neutrality, as well as the integration of climate considerations in trade policy, industrial policy and development assistance, are important signals of broader systemic changes.
• The green transition requires a massive realignment of technological and productive capacity, which has clear implications for the distribution of power.
• Africa must leverage opportunities to address its pressing developmental priorities related to economic growth, jobs and skills development as an integrated part of addressing climate and environmental challenges.