The demand for effective resource governance partnerships has grown in line with pressure on Africa’s extractive industries to deliver inclusive and sustainable development. This briefing outlines key principles that should frame stakeholder engagements in Africa’s extractive industries, with balanced participation by companies, governments and other role players. Chief among these is a renewed commitment by all the parties to the idea of shared values and reciprocal responsibilities, within clearly defined frameworks for effective co-ordination. More reflective, evidence-driven dialogues on leveraging the extractive sector towards social and economic transformation without compromising the profitability of private investments are also essential. These need to be informed by a broader conception of partnership among African states, prioritising regional standard setting and lesson sharing, as well as more purposeful strategic partnerships with global systemic players in the extractive sector. Unless anchored coherently in continental visions such as the African Union’s (AU) Agenda 2063 and the Africa Mining Vision (AMV), the African extractive sector is unlikely to support structural social and economic transformation.